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There are many non-scientific and scientific types of the answer about what came before the Big Bang. Some scientists say there was a multiverse or a black hole and some say exactly nothing. But now a team of mathematicians from Egypt and Canada has examined some cutting edge, a complex set of equations and a scientific theory to solve the mystery, what preceded the universe in which we live. Their research paper has been published in Nature.

To clarify it in easily understandable terms or simple words; they applied the theories of the very small i.e. the world of quantum mechanics, to the entire universe explained by general theory of relativity, and discovered the universe fundamentally goes through 4 different stages. More prominently they exposed what came before this universe was another universe or more precisely another ‘cosmological phase’. Regardless of being infinite in size our universe is recurring and has always occurred in one of 4 stages. The universe is mounting, and the expansion is speedy, but the group trusts that certain adjustment motivated by quantum mechanics will finally stop the expansion and pull the whole lot back to a near infinite point at which phase the universe will start growing again.

The research paper, called ''Non-singular and Cyclic Universe from the Modified GUP'', written by Maha Salah, Fay├žal Hammad, Mir Faizal, Ahmed Farag Ali, is super complex but Prof. Mir Faizal outlined the main points of this research paper. According to him they have combined quantum mechanical effects in cosmology using a method called the ‘Modified GUP’. This method changes the equation for cosmology in a very exciting way. It forecasts 4 distinct stages for our universe the present chapter of the universe being just one of those stages. There is a stage before the big bang in this cosmological model, and it is possible to know about that stage of the universe by studying the physics of present stage of our universe. 

Professor Mir Faizal said:

“In our cosmological model the universe did not start with the big bang, but there was a phase transition from one phase of the universe to another. This is possible because the universe can exist in four different phases like ordinary water can exist in three different phases. Just as we can know about the properties of ice, by studying water which has formed from it, we can know about pre-big bang cosmology by studying the physics of this universe.” In their model, they have been able to investigate the pre-Big Bang position of the universe.

The equations in their model forecast that the expansion of the universe will come to a stop and then will instantly be followed by a contracting stage. Prof Mir added:

“When the equations are extrapolated beyond the maximum rate of contraction, a cyclic universe scenario emerges. Other cosmologists have suggested a big bang and big crunch scenario but that model have singularities. Singularities are bad in physics as they indicate a place where the laws of physics breakdown, and at such places, one cannot use physics to get meaningful results. This new cosmological model does away with such singularity. The big bang singularity can therefore also be avoided by using the modified GUP-corrections to the cosmology.”

In their cosmology model, the cyclic nature of the universe happens as a result of incorporating quantum effects into a cosmological model of the universe. Prof Faizal clarified that even though there are many dissimilar mind winding methods to quantum gravity, like loop quantum gravity and string theory, what most of these different tactics have in common is that there is a minimum length below which space doesn’t exist. Many of these tactics also forecast that there is also a maximum energy and no object in the universe can have energy beyond that maximum energy.

They research team combined the effect of having a minimum length and maximum energy into a cosmological model, and then they ended up with a cyclic universe. Asked about the philosophical and even possible theological suggestions of his work Prof. Mir said:

“No one draws any philosophical or theological implications of a finite or an infinite spatial dimension, and time is just another dimension, so why should it be treated any differently. In any case, I do not believe in a God of gaps, with big bang being a big gap, but in a God who made the mathematics describing reality so perfect that there are no gaps, not now and not at big bang.”

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